// This is a 90-year article, from the perspective of assembly language, the content is slightly old,
// However, there are many opinions, I am very much.
// Mr. Zhu is a senior in the software community, the inventor of Cangli, is currently the vice chairman of the Hong Kong Cultural Communication Group.
/ / Publish "Chinese character genetic engineering"
This book is designed for the ability and experience of the writing combination program, and is intended to be a composite language as a common tool, and further concept, and technical research.
The microcomputer has been born so far, but short-term, all concepts and technologies are still in the development phase. However, using a constant hard body mechanism, plus a program that can be arbitrarily designed with actual needs, and under mutual cooperation, complete certain specified work, is the most efficient method.
Regardless of the future development of computer hardware, this kind of soft-plastic can inevitably become an important page of human civilization. Even with the needs of the times, a lot of manpower, my mind's investment, what is it impossible to become an art? A comprehensive art representative of human wisdom, involving various fields, and has commercial value?
Art has the characteristics of openness, observation, and perfection, it can enrich life, sublimation humanity, activation of the soul, is a creation of human beings. In every era, with the changes in the environment and things, there will be different forms of art. People use the material you can touch, to play the highest realm and the highest realm, this is art.
I think in this era, computer program design and application is a kind of artist art. At present, it is only the waden of computer art. It is not yet, then it is simple, in this process, in this process, we have to invest in a lot of labor, heart, and unpleasant wisdom.
This book is not helpful for beginners, and readers should have awareness of computer hardware and hardware, and slightly a combined language directive. More ideal is that there are already some applications to understand the truth.
The combined language is made of machine control, which is different due to the difference between the central processor (CPU) or Micro Processor). This book is only for the 8088 CPU directive, technical discussion.
The original book of this book is in the teaching of the two instruments and cultural technology companies, and after the need, they will be organized by the needs. However, due to heavy work, it is easy to say, and the details are often sigh. There are even the fallacy in the book, and if you ask someone to finish, it is fortunate.
When the book is going to publish, I found a good book on the "Zen of Assembly Language" (Michael Abrash, Scott, Foreesman and Company), the concept of this book is extremely close, just in technology In all levels, the analysis is very thorough, it is worth recommending.
Ingenious, in the book, I also got an example of amplification, and the method is very similar to us. The reader is interested in detail, the stone of his mountains can attack, and you can see such a good book, prove that there is not alone, quite comfort.
I firmly believe that when the computer is ripe, the production of the software will rely all on the module, and the module must be built on a combination language. Therefore, in the end, only a small number of people can make special modules and open sales. As for the application software, it will be simple to manually design, so I am ambiguous computer worker, should start by the combination language.
This book is rhetorical by Shen Honglian, correcting Miss Liu Li using the "Juzhen Integration System", with a 600-point thundermatic printing machine version, this is aimed at this.
Zhu Bang Fu July, 1990, the first chapter
First previous computer
The arrival of the computer, is known as the third wave of human culture, because it has strong information and flexibility, just supplementing insufficient human memory, slow response, is more than a disadvantage that is limited to time and space. In today's world, it has become a powerful helper in the daily work of human day.
It is different from other inventions of human beings, and is "hardware" structure with a mechanism to perform "software" that can change with the design concept. This, the machine has flexible applications, as long as there is a suitable software, it will be faithful to deal with various cumbersome tasks.
At the beginning, its speed and capacity are very low, but there is enough charm, attracting countless frenzy people, for it, constantly improving update. Just ten years, it has been reborn, and it is a dragon.
This is a new world. Anyone who has a wide range of thinking, creativity, can make a variety of abstract concepts into order, personally "language", which can use the computer's special "language" and "software". With a lot of software, the work performance is significantly improved. Finally, its status laid, the changes accelerated throughout the human society, and the dependence on it also deepened.
Under this situation, we must want to fully master the direction of the computer, you must understand the essence of your computer, further analyze the viable, ideal ways. Since it is still in the development stage, there must be many defects, which is precisely because it is not perfect, so we need to watered with heart.
Second, the name
Any industry, its professional terms are correct, elegant, representing cultural levels engaged in people who are engaged in the industry. Perhaps some people think that cultural level is not important, then what is more important? "Letter, Ya, Da" is not a decoration, the term is for learning, communication and expression. Therefore, cultural levels are equivalent to common sense and intellectual levels of the industry practitioners in another point of view.
It is said that the computer is "electronic computer", and the Computer is indeed a definition, because the computer is only computing. However, after the Micro Computer commented, its computing power has been replaced by a small calculator (Calculator), which is the main function of logic reasoning, graphics and image processing.
Today is an era of evolution and elimination, the new things, from the disappearance, from the weak to thrive, and are all eye-catching. Formerly known computer, it has now proved to be the lack of ideas at the time, should we be wrong? Moreover, the trend and it will have to develop in accordance with artificial intelligence, become the "electronic" brain of the road. So, we think it should be corrected in time, named "Computer".
In addition, the assembly language is translated into "assembly language", which is an understanding, because the vast majority of the program requires "assembly", and the agreement is the "combination". Name is not correct, understanding will deviate, and it is difficult to play the practical application of the function.
The most unforgivable mistake is because the Chinese people have a good eaten, hard to use the Menu "list, directory", all direct translations "menu" in the modern science and technology world "fake"! my country's text has no advantages and unfair, I can't imagine what to understand when the wisdom computer faces "menu" every day!
With the "program" as "program", this is also not enough to understand the text concept, "program" is a "program" "" "," program "is just a" process and order " Readers must not know. "Hardware, Software" is divided into fixed and variable physical properties, "hardware, software" is a specific object; "Suite, software package" is the goods that can be sold; "Hard, floppy" refers to the attached machine The equipment on the device; "Soft disc" is a canable disk.
There is also a call to "access", which seems to be too humanized. It is the "call" specific sub-program, the name is smooth, why not "call"? Run is translated into "Run", it is too "realistic". These translations have not been made to think that in more than ten years ago, some people have translated backspace into "regret", and the result is generous and fun.
Other such misunderstandings, I think the computer industry must be modest, invite experts from the literary profession, or the masters to see, so as not to be sure to learn.
In fact, due to the concept of concepts, the text itself is constantly adjusting. Take "Zhuangzi" as an example, making "row" in the Han Dynasty. Later, the "Happy Tour" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" ""
Some philosophy is the case, why don't you do today?
Third, the application
In the early days of the development of the computer, regardless of hardware, software, it is entirely in personal intentions, and its functions are fully based on the self-recognition of developers.
Now, the technology of software and hardware grows rapidly, and the requirements of its society are increasingly high, especially the complexity of software, and no one can master. Therefore, personal heroism has passed, collective cooperation, powerful various software have out of order, and computer applications popularize all walks of life.
People's wishes are never satisfied, with technology's current chance, users have begun to look forward to a universal software, and can solve all their needs. However, although the computer is a commodity, the technical level involved is very high, only a few experts inspect the mystery. In theory, as long as all known functions, soluble in a kit, it is called "integration software", and continuously improvement, it will inevitably meet people's needs.
This integrated software, for the Western utilitarian society, is only desirable to be desirable. They make software pure to profit, the lower the cost, the better the listing. Since they are experts who have mastered the technology, but to achieve the purpose of the wealth, they do not want to reluctance, to consider the users.
Design software tools, called "program language", which is much species, the earliest use of "machine code", and later, it is convenient to use the program, and it has established an interface between the machine code and the programmer, this interface The words and grammar used are "combined languages".
Due to the beginning of technology development, various concepts and understandings are incomplete, and the general organizers are suspected of being too culturally, it is difficult to use. Therefore, some "high-order languages" that are relatively easy to apply is developed. This high-order language is made, not only slower, but also a microcomputer, which is limited, so that the capacity is limited, and it is often accounted for this "advanced" program.
Although the hard body is improved year by year, while the software work is also increasing. If you use high-order language to make, the water is high, the ideal integration is still far away. The computer industry has always had a falsehood, and the capacity of the savvy memory is getting bigger and bigger, so the program space is not important. This is the most irresponsible attitude! The increase in memory is applied to strengthen the function of the computer. How can I save for no reason? There is no such problem in the combined language. In a rigorous production mode, it is not only small, not only high, and it is easy to make. This time, we only used 100 months, 170kb-based, and completed integrated software such as window, instrument, trial table, database, drawing, typographic and communication.
Further, we will continue to develop this module of this integrated software into a "integrated system module", which is provided to system, software company, for the second development. Due to the use of the ready-made module to save the time of the program, by the development of a large number of applications to enhance the function of the computer.
Of course, various computer languages have their own advantages, completely see the ideas and objectives of the designer. In principle, its speed, the system space, the system space, the versatility of various varieties, the nature of the data to be treated, and the workload required to use the language, etc., it is necessary to consider the factors.
If we put your eyes in future computers, artificial intelligence will be the only direction. To think about micro-computers, it is possible to use a combined language due to a combination language due to a combination language. As for some artificial intelligence-specific languages, it is the garbage of the transition period, which is worthless!
Whether engaged in any job, you must have a keen vision and judgment, etc. The combined language is a new field, first establish the concept, and then drilled the technology, it will be unfavorable.
Fourth, the program of the US market
The only information on my hand is the article in May 65 in May 1983, discussed 362 software development tools at the time, stored in a "relevant database" and in the database Utilization of tools, one by one analysis.
There are 34-way languages, as well as other application tools, part-style language part, and rear.
┏ ┳ ┳ ┳ ┓
Quantity of the number of clause language
┣ ╋ ╋ ╋ ┫
Fortran 110 COBOL 41
Jovial 15 Structured Fortran 10
Assembly 8 Basic 5
CICS 4 Object Code INPUT 4
PL / 1 3 IFTRAN 3
SRTRAN 3 Pascal 3
Structured Cobol 3 Ada 3
Compass 2 Ratfor 2
Lisp 2 C 2
DMATRAN 2 MEMORY DUMP 2BAL 1 SMAL / 80 1
PCL 1 Scobol 1
APL 1 HAL / S 1
Chill 1 Algol 1
SNOBOL 1 JCVS 1
CSL 1 MODULA 1
MEFIA 1 CMS-2 1
┗ ┻ ┻ ┻ ┛
After seven years of market choice, C is currently the most important system tool, and Pascal replaces COBOL to become a development tool for commercial software. Basic is still a partner of students and industry players; only combined languages, about still staying in the original level. In addition to a few system programs, such as IBM BIOS (Basic Input Output Services Basic Interrupt Service) and DOS (Disk Operating System Disk Operation System), the user is not much.
This phenomenon has led to a great prejudice of the Chinese, and the salty believes that the US concept, the technology is far ahead, and their choice of software development tools will inevitably have a unique vision. School teaching, system company application, do not follow, pick and pick up people.
The United States is a means of commercial-oriented and utilizing an annual update equipment to accelerate the improvement of products. Therefore, they pay attention to the efficiency of hardware, and the cost of program writing, but the characteristics of the program language itself have not received it.
It is not to be said, and we are currently in the soft position. If we can't see the truth of the facts in this key moments, it is unable to use the East, and the consequences are not known.
I think that only uses a combined language, vigorously develop a variety of applications, enhance the performance of the minimum microcomputer to the extreme. In this way, we can play the advantages of people and improve the high-tech level.
V. Performance comparison of various languages
In order to specifically understand the performance of various commonly used computer language, we selected five types of test objects, the following table is the various statistics from the test. The table is relatively increased in the table.
In Appendix 1, II, we will list the principles of various tests, the skills used, and the details considered, and will be illustrated by one by one. The main goal is to understand the techniques of program writing, and the means of pursuing efficiency.
The indicators we test have two, one is the scope of application of various program languages themselves; one is the difference between programming languages. According to the timing, air efficiency analysis, we found that there is a great difference between the program language. That is to use the same language, the skills of the program writing are also significantly different. As for the applicable category of program language, reliable conclusions are not obtained due to limited nipples.
We chose two questions. First, the dot matrix graphics processing will be 48x48 glyphs, to give 48x48 glyphs. This dot matrix treatment, there are many high-order languages that are difficult to compete, so they have five kinds in common language. The other is sorting, and the general language can be handled, but it is far from the efficiency.
┏ ┳ ┳ ┳ ┳ ┳ ┳ ┓ ┓ ┓ ┓ 类 类 执行 执行 执行 速 时间 限 通 限 通 通 通 通 通 通
┣ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ┫
Assembly 1.0 1.0 2.1 is limited to the limited variety
图 ┣ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ┫
Turbo C 7.2 3.2 1.4 Unlimited
形 ┣ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ┫
Pascal 6.8 8.1 1.4 Unlimited industrial applications
┣ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋ ┫
FORTRAN 8.0 6.9 1.0 Unlimited Scientific Calculation
理 ┣ ╋ ╋ ╋ ╋